how to really deal with slugs and snail.

The mindful approach. To be a mindful gardener we may not like what the slugs and snails do but we need not hate or rage. In Theravada Buddhism it is taught that the antidote to anger is compassion and loving kindness. Not the easiest of asks but when we accept that anger is toxic not just to the spirit but to the body, which it floods with a stressful chemistry. In mindfulness we learn to master our emotions or at least not have them dominate us.

I will admit I am not quite at the stage of extending loving compassion to the slugs and snails that devour my seedlings – though I want to be of Buddha mind and Krishna consciousness. I do however acknowledge that they are only operating within their nature – feeding and living – there is no malice in it. There is no need for a sense of injustice or anger. It is just the nature of the garden. It is just the nature of life – there are things beyond your control, bad things happen – we cannot internalize everything that does not go to plan or to our peace of mind. we don’t have to ride the storm or the tsunami of negative emotion; we can bring compassion to our self and move on to the next moment.

Anger, doubt, regret – all the disrupting sentiments are just sentiments – they are not you, they are not of I or mine. They are transitory, if you let them transit on. If you transition to a different now. Slugs and snail  eat. We garden. Life goes on.

Transmutation. Anger can be motivation. I know that on the spiritual path ego and anger are seen as evils. I dispute. It is the context. Ok egotism can go, but you can’t obliterate the self fully, you still need some self for self-respect. The letting go is not of any semblance of self it rather with letting go of self-identification with aggression, greed, emotional pain and other suffering. It is transcending the moment – that is going to heaven, that is reaching nirvana – that is the journey and the afterlife or shush I say that is the next stage of life.

Anger is problematic but it often stems from what we perceive as an injustice and that hints at a will to right the situation but we can stand in front the tank not drive it, we can love bomb not blow up. We can overcome.

Anger is a human trait and so if it’s good enough for evolution to retain than it has some value. I do not mean aggression, I mean a sense of justice or outrage at injustice or true evils. anger is the sensation we experience when something offends, if the smirk of a colleague angers – work on that. If slavery, persecution or prejudice offends you then get to work on that – vote, campaign, boycott, speak up.

So if those slugs are still bothering you into rage or clenched teeth then be motivated by it – make the beer trap, buy the grit, protect the plants. Turn the negative experience into impetus towards a more positive experience. This is the alchemy of the soul. There is more to made than precious metals.

Garden contemplation: Overcome one’s self then overcome all else.

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A latitude for gratitude

Gardening gifts myriad opportunities to be grateful; Grateful that the sun is shining, or that the wind has abated or that the rain is doing the watering today. Grateful that those seeds germinated, or that plant flowered or that bush berried. We gardeners can mistake our kind regard for the situational moment as relief; relief that the sun is shining or the wind abated etc but becoming more mindful we not only shift our contentment to joy, but lift our relief to thankfulness – to a deeper appreciation of the situation. To not just sense the happening of a good moment but embrace and rejoice that the moment is doing you good too.

Many studies have found that expressing or experiencing gratitude can trigger a realization of eudaimonia; that’s a positive psychological perception of one’s own welfare, often accompanied by a sense of physical health. Being thankful is so close to being joyful that our brain chemistry and body responds accordingly. Gratitude is now popular as a psychological device to protect oneself from stress, negativity, self-pity, anxiety, and depression. Long before that it was simply a way to count your blessings.

Cultivating eudaimonia. The concept of eudaimonia is as old as the Greek gods but it is perhaps most clearly considered in Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics where it is understood to mean “to live and fair well”. Etymologically, it consists of the words “eu” meaning wellness and “daimōn” which denotes a guardian spirit; so it is the spirit of doing good – thriving. It is often translated as welfare, wellbeing, happiness, flourishing, blessedness, prosperity, and so on – you get the meaning; it’s not a bad thing to be cultivating.

So how do we grow this good life. Well by growing things and enjoying them, by eating our harvest, by looking forward to our next sowing, by participating in our pleasures and our rewarding pastimes. Appreciating the garden and mindfully considering the more positive aspects of life is often seen as having a positive outlook but it is a personality trait than can be honed more if you naturally have it and even gained if it’s not your natural inclination.

The way is to express more gratitude, kind regard and loving kindness towards your self, your daily experiences and your life journey. It is not so difficult. It is just a matter of allowing it. Take the time to appreciate the beauty or bounty of the next plant you water. Take the time to notice the next pollinating bee. Bring your awareness to just how good it is to be outside as your flourishing self in your flourishing garden

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A balm for exam stresses and other anxieties.

I have long been enamoured with Lemonbalm (Melissa officinalis). I think it a pretty plant, I love its aromatic contribution to the garden but I relish its healing potential. Of course any plant with officinalis in the title was once upon a time – before foil packet medicines – an official herb of health. With this one I love its mental health attributes and its ability to help bust stress around exam time.

The scent alone has mood lifting benefits – lemony fragrances tend to ping energizing and antidepressant brain receptors. That refreshing whiff is a nifty touch of aromatherapy. Crush a leaf and try for yourself. The essential oil is often recommended to vaporise in a room or add to bath in times of moderated stress to severe anxiety. I love it because it not only calms the system but opens up the brains capacity to receive and store and recall information. It’s the perfect fragrance to get a nose to at exam time, not only are you less stressed you are better functioning.

To get a bit technical for a second, its volatile oils act to increase acetylcholine levels in the brain – that’s the neurotransmitter with a wide array of functions including mood regulation, cognitive function, memory storage and recall, rapid eye movement sleep, as well as neuromuscular signalling and motor control. So the aromatherapy has broad application. But ingesting the plant is a more potent dose of those volatile oils.

Those lemon-scented leaves are delicious in a herbal tea or used (dried or fresh) to flavour an evening meal or lunch with a citrus hint or to make a salad dressing with some zing. A tea is one of the simplest methods to get some into you – as we say. 1-2 tsps of chopped dried herb or several plucked leaves will match the strength of any shop bought tea bag. To capture the maximum quantity of volatile oils it is best to brew in a pot or cover the tea cup with a saucer to stop them evaporating. A brew length of 3-7 minutes will do the trick.

Lemonbalm tea has a long history in tackling anxiety and stress – its anxiolytic effect come not just in its psychologically soothing nature – hence ‘balm’ in the name – but in its ability to increase neurotransmitter levels related to cognitive function and intellectual performance – it’s the alertness with the tranquillity that works as such a potent therapy.

One of those neurotransmitters that it stimulates is gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) – which just happens to be the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter responsible for reducing neuronal excitability throughout our entire nervous system and which helps to attenuate the activation of the amygdala and other brain circuitry in the face of stress markers and negative emotional stimuli. In other words – Super calming.

Where the lift comes from is that Lemonbalm also contains flavonoids such as apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol and quercetin which can help bolster how we perceive our own general sense of wellbeing and improve peripheral blood circulation to – and the oxygenation of – our brain. Because lemon balm also deepens restorative sleep it helps rest the body away from the build-up of stress. In restorative sleep mode we actually upload our learned files and delete those nonsense moments of the day – we prioritise the lesson learned over the mistake made – this is why good sleep is so important to mental health.

Ok so maybe you don’t have a driving test or college exam looming, maybe you have long since aced or other your leaving cert, well lemonbalm is still worth growing. The principles that give it its lemon flavour – citral, citronellal, citronellol – are antispasmodic agents that work to calm the digestive as well as nervous systems. Those same agents making it useful to address menstrual cramps and also tension headaches. Lemonbalm’s polyphenolics such as rosmarinic acid have a potent anti-viral action so drinking lemon balm can also shorten a cold or flu.

To discover more about herbal teas and how to maximise their chemistry, check out my new book – a quick cuppa herbal.

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to look at a flower

“When you take a flower in your hand and really look at it, it’s your world for a moment”. – Georgia O’Keeffe (American artist. 1887 –1986)

Gardening can be an all-consuming pastime but within the garden we can be devoured by love and awe too.  To look at the simple beauty or intricate majesty of a flower is to loose oneself to the moment of it – To be at one and nothing in a single move. There is no need to pluck or look for a vase, look at it on the plant, how it sings from its natural place, how at home it is in its environment – radiant and resonant. Yeah, looking at a flower is a sure-fire way of forgetting the travails of the world or the troubles of yourself.

Rare is the answer just look – but wait, just look.

“There is nothing you can see that is not a flower” – Matsuo Bashō (Japanese poet. 1644-1694)

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The power of passionflower tea

Passionflower has a long ethnobotany tracing back to Aztecs and other indigenous peoples of Mexico and South America. The foliage and stems of the variety Passifiora incarnate is utilized as a sedative and nerve tonic in modern herbalism while Passiflora edulis (of the edible fruit fame) is largely ignored.

Passionflower is considered a superior calming herb – utilized to settle nerves and quell excessive nerve signaling. It has treatment applications with neuralgia, uterine pain, gastrointestinal spasms, insomnia, irritability and depression. It is having a renaissance in contemporary herbalism to treat generalized anxiety, stress syndromes and opiate withdrawal.

The chemical makeup of passionflower tea triggers increased levels/registering of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) within the brain which is helpful to lowering the activity of brain cells associated with tension, stress and anxiety. This is the beginning of the tea helping to make you feel more relaxed. It’s array of flavonoids (including rutin, kaempferol, quercetin and vitexin) are antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, nervine and neuroprotective– while two of its alkaloids (harman and harmoline) exert muscle relaxant and sedative effects – further prompting a deeper relaxed state.

These physical effects upon the body and brain chemistry are both analgesic and anxiolytic and would indicate that beyond insomnia and anxiety issues, there may be a basis for the treatment of chronic pain syndromes including fibromyalgia – and also with conditions such as M.E, M.S and Parkinson’s disease. Passionflower tea has had a history with nervous disorders and their side symptoms of twitches, tremors, headaches, nervous stomach and restlessness etc.

Passionflower tea and extracts have a good reputation in remedying the symptoms of menopause, including hot flashes, night sweets, confusion and depression. The tea may also benefit erectile dysfunction or low libido in men as it improves blood circulation, while lowering blood pressure and anxiousness. It also contains chrysin which actively helps rise/conserve testosterone levels.

How to make: Standard infusion of 3-7mins with 1 tsp of dried herbage per cup required. While passionflower herb doesn’t drastically increase in bitterness with longer steepage, the extraction of health molecules is pretty much done after 5minutes. The tea is pleasant enough but do not expect the fruit flavour. It is suited to some sweetening or flavour enrichment.

Dosage: For insomnia the recommendation is a strong cup one hour before bedtime, for anxiety and other therapeutics 2-3 cups during the day for treatment duration. For prolonged use, a weekend pause every two weeks is recommended. Caution: Avoid in pregnancy and breastfeeding. May interact with anticonvulsants, anticoagulants benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants and prescription sedatives. Recurrent usage can aggravate conditions caused by excessive testosterone.

To find out more about the power of other herbal teas pick up a copy of a quick cuppa herbal –






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A lie on the grass.

When did you last just lay yourself down on your lawn and look up at the sky. A lie on the grass is not just a pleasant rest, it evokes the awe-inspired carefree activity of childhood – a transportation to a time long before embarrassment became a barrier to being happy-go-lucky.

Lying on the grass is also a way to be earthed/grounded, not just in the spiritual sense where you let the earth take the weight of yourself and you release your tensions to it and realize your gratitude for being alive in this moment but also in the process of detoxing any static build up in your body that may be contributing to brain fog, inflammation, muscle tension, decreased immune function and fatigue. Lying on the grass puts you in direct contact with the healing polarity of the magnetic field of the earth. It is more than the time out that reenergizes.

Lie down – read a book, cloud gaze, feel the warmth of the sun’s rays, have your lunch break, have a proper ‘do nothing’ time out – just do it horizontal with contact to the Earth. You can allow appreciation or gratitude, you can consciously deepen your awareness of the moment, really acknowledge the experience, you can release your body tension into the holding arms of the earth, you can let go of thoughts – it can be a mindful lie on the grass

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apple cider vinegar

The use of apple cider vinegar as a medicinal aid is sometimes thought of as a modern fad but it is in fact a really ancient cure; Hippocrates – he of the Hippocratic oath – was recommending it back in 400 B.C. for its anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral properties and that was borrowing from a much older tradition.

Today, one of the most popular modern uses of ACV is to drink a little to stimulate weight loss or to treat bloating. Now in keeping with the first line of that Hippocratic oath that all doctors and physician must abide by ‘first do no harm’ – prolonged use of undiluted apple cider can damage tooth enamel and effect the oesophagus so mixing it with water can lessen that – try 1-2 teaspoons apple cider vinegar in a glass of water.

The antibacterial nature is good to lessen candida and other stomach overgrowths that contribute to bloating, the acidic nature of vinegar also prompts the stomach in to slowing gastric emptying so you feel fuller for longer and eat less during the day. There have been some promising studies on how a glass of vinegar water at night can lower blood glucose and serum cholesterol levels.

ACV is also popular as a tonic to restore energy and certainly it has plenty of minerals and vitamins that boost our immune system and prompt a better sense of wellbeing – all the same compounds that make an apple a day keep the doctor away- but the fermentation process boosts some of its capacity to breakdown toxins and clear the system of accumulated wastes. Vinegar has always been used to help break down fatty foods.

Apple cider vinegar is packed with antioxidants, vitamin C and a whole range of b vitamins that rejuvenate, tone and cleanse skin. You can use it diluted 1:1 with water as a cleanser, you can mix it with honey or clay to make a mask. Its content of alpha-hydroxy acids and acetic acid really work to clear pores, exfoliate dead skin and tighten and brighten the complexion of skin.

You can also use vinegar as a skin spritz for prickly heat, razor bumps, psoriasis and sunburn. Or as a hair rinse – anti dandruff, strengthening of scalp but also regulating of sebum release in oily hair. And you can even use it neat as nail strengthening soak.

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