The garden as therapeutic space.

In the field of social and therapeutic horticulture, many people come to gardening as a break from stress, anxiety and fear, to break from those harmful preoccupations by participation with a more natural engagement. Gardening is the perfect distraction, the place to get lost and lose your worries but it is also a safe place to engage with mindfulness, cognitive behavioural therapeutics and other corrective methods to our harmful thought processes. It doesn’t just have to be happy place it can be contemplative too.

When I work the garden, I forget my woes but when I have woes that need attention and solving I often go to the garden to ponder over, I may weed as I go or I may just sit on the bench and get some perspective thinking in. Sometimes when you think the world is collapsing you need to flip the thought as way to asses its validity, to think ‘ok what is the evidence that the world is not collapsing’? Often just sitting in garden, with its natural rhythms, with all the knowledge of the effort it took to create and maintain, is the evidence of your personal perseverance and resilience. Here the world goes on, it is not collapsing. Here you have been useful, achieving, caring, attentive, productive – a good person. The evidence abounds.

So, as a relaxation space or contemplative space, the garden just gifts the therapeutic opportunity. Ones does not have to wait for the crisis to avail of it, but in a crisis it can help you recover and flourish.

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Maskne (facial covering related breakouts)

Certainly the stress of the new normal and the additional home snacking and comfort eating occasioned by covid circumstances is contributing to more skin complaints and in particular pimple and acne breakouts but the essential and lifesaving wearing of masks and facial coverings for prolonged periods is contributing its own complaint- to what dermatologists are dubbing “maskne”.

So while we have this new name “maskne”, it’s not a new condition, workers whom have long worn visors or facial PPE and sports people with helmets and face guards have been dealing for decades with this form of acne – known as acne mechanica – so the good news is we know how to treat it.

In essence it is a complication of the covering of the skin, so with medical masks and facial covering the breakouts tend to affect around the mouth, chin and bridge of nose – the pores beneath the reach of your mask being less aerated and more prone to friction and agitation, can become blocked by sweat, your natural oil secretions, and makeup, thus laying a seedbed for acne (which is bacterial in nature) to erupt – then the fact that we are breathing heat and moisture into the masks and across the contained skin’s surface fuels the activation and spread of the bacteria and more frequent breakouts.

There are a couple of steps we can take

Mask etiquette. Masks are essential to our fight against covid, it’s a problem we can’t ditch so quick but some mask etiquette will go a long way to prevention and faster recovery – a fresh mask each day or several changes over the course of a day will help, after each use dispose of your disposables or wash your renewables.

Face hygiene. You won’t have to wash your face as frequently as we all wash our hands now, but washing your face before you put a mask on and after you take it off will reduce the bacteria that causes the breakouts. Don’t use harsh soap or strong chemicals that can disrupt your skins barrier layer and only put it under more stress. A gentle soap and warm water will do the trick.

Cleansing regime. There is no need for hard exfoliation or strong peels, a big part of ‘maskne’ is the friction of the mask, so think gentle – let the skin recoup when not under the mask rather than trying scrubs and treatments. You can continue to cleanse but in a very soothing way – there are many natural cleansers that will soothe skin irritation while removing bacteria and excess sebum and simultaneously supply a gentle exfoliation of dead skin cells that may house the bacteria. Coconut oil, honey, dilute apple cider vinegar, oatmeal can all be utilized to cleanse and care for affected areas

The ‘go to’ supplement – Essential fatty acids are great to balance hormonal and stress triggered acne but also are very useful when topically applied, to inhibit bacterial growth and work against both infection and inflammation. One of the best is gamma-linolenic acid – potent in evening primrose oil, borage seed oil and black currant seed oil.

Other Garden aid – Cleaver juice is great for all types of skin eruptions. Witch hazel extract makes an excellent pore closer and cooled thyme tea is a natural cleanser with potent antibacterial properties.

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Growing a starter herb garden.

If the covid-19 pandemic has taught us something other than the precious fragility of human life and society, it is that as individuals and communities we need to become a little more self-reliant, a little bit more self-sufficient. A simple step in that direction is to look at our food security and think about growing our own food.

That does not have to be as daunting as you might think, it can be something as simple as starting a herb garden. You won’t need acres or even a garden for that – just a windowsill, inside or outside or a few containers on a patio or balcony or even a hanging basket or two. It is possible to grow many culinary and medicinal herbs year-round – often started on a windowsill, summered on a balcony/patio and then overwintered again inside.

You won’t even need green fingers, a herb garden is one of the most doable of all garden projects. Most herbs prefer a lower fertility growing media so you are not going to have to be amending soil and remembering to feed every few weeks. Most come from drier zones and even Mediterranean regions, so once they are facing the sun and you supply a little water every now and then they are no fuss at all.

A herb garden is perfect as a fun learning project to introduce children to a new life skill, to knowing where their food comes from, to playing a part in personally contributing to less food miles and a cleaner environment. School strikes are great but this is hands on. This is personal responsibility in action, this is how to make a real difference.

And for the adults, it is not just the ease of having some basil to hand for a homemade pizza or pesto during supply chain issues or helping you to avoid long shop queues amid this and the next crisis, it is that what you are growing has a lower carbon foot print and that growing your five day guarantees you will eat your five a day with more regularity and less waste. Your contribution to a more ecological life. Plus it’s a bit cool to just snip your own mint for an evening mojito or brew a calming cup of fresh chamomile for a good night’s sleep.

So all you need is a sunny spot, some containers to grow in and that can be anything from upcycled yoghurt cartons or bean tins to larger options of breadbins, wine crates or store bought containers, and a soil mix that is free draining; that’s usually 1-part loam (garden soil), 1-part compost (store bought or homemade) and 1-part grit or pea gravel – all well stirred up together.

If you are growing inside you might want to plug any drainage holes in store bought containers unless you have a sitting tray to avoid leaks and stains. Its ok to not puncture your upcycled containers but fill the base with a few inches of gravel to act as a reservoir. Water sinks to the bottom but also evaporates up. Outside containers can be allowed drainage holes as we have less control over how often they get watered by rain.

It’s that simple, you water once a week unless they are still damp from the last watering – always allow to dry between each watering – and if you like you can feed with a weak solution of organic liquid feed twice a year; Start of spring, mid-way through summer. The only other thing is to harvest, regularly pinching off a few leaves makes for busier plants, don’t strip all in one go, let the plant replenish.

Sourcing. Even if your local garden centre is not yet reopened, many supermarkets stock culinary herbs in pots, the likes of thyme, parsley, sage, chives, mint, rosemary, coriander, basil and dill. And you can start a very respectable herb garden from several of these tasty stables.

The starting list. How I approach my growing, is to only grow what I will use. No point in growing anise if you only use it once a year for mulled wine. I also like to grow a plant with several uses, so yes thyme is great as a flavouring herb, but it’s also a great immune boosting tea and a natural antiseptic if I nick my thumb gardening. Here as some of the more easily sourced culinary herbs with some added benefits, to get you started.

Basil (Ocimum basilicum). A windowsill trough of basil keeps me in homemade pesto and helps flavour any tomato or roast pepper sauces I get to make through the year. It is a good source of vitamin c and has a history of use in fighting viral infections and supporting respiratory health – a feature of cough syrups, cold and flu remedies and as gargle for sore throats. It has ethnobotanical usage to lessen the mucus build-up and discomfort associated with bronchitis and asthma. So perhaps a timely one to cultivate when we all trying to bolster our respiratory health.

If you cannot get the seed or a potted plant, you can start a slip from a store bought bunch of fresh; simply strip the lower leaves from a couple of stems, leave the top three leaves on, and place the stems in a glass of water, change the water every other day and roots will from with 2-3 weeks, 4 at the max. Then pot on into compost.

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is a lovely flavoring herb for soups, sauces and stews and also popular as a garnish and as an herbal tea. Thyme is another with reputation in treating fungal, bacterial and viral infections. Its phytochemistry helps activate a more efficient immune response in particular to boosts the effectiveness of macrophages to track and kill foreign organisms. Externally a cooled thyme tea is a wound healer and a skin tonic for acne, eczema and psoriasis. It also makes a great oral health gargle. I use thyme tea to clean my seed trays.

Thyme is easily propagated from softwood cuttings; simply take a few stems and with a sharp knife cut each to 5-10cm lengths, make the cut just below a node – that’s where a leaf emerges from the stem. Strip the foliage off the bottom half of each cutting and pot up with the other leafy half above surface. Keep moist but not soggy. When new leaves start to form there are roots below and you can pot on.

Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a component of fines herbes, bouquet garni and sauce béarnaise, a must have for home cooks but also a real boon for female health. Parsley in dietary quantities has history in treating anaemia; it is packed with iron – a single tablespoon providing approximately 10% RDA. Parsley also contains vitamin C in large quantities which helps improve iron absorption. The combo of C and iron and its phytoestrogens are also useful to remedy menopausal restless leg syndrome and hot flushes.

If you cannot get a potted plant then next best is by seed, but patience required as germination is slow – often several weeks. Quicker if you have a heated propagator set to 18°C (64°F) and sink the seed 0.5cm deep.

Sage (Salvia officinalis) is another prevalent flavouring ingredient and popular herbal tea with a reputation as a female health herb too. Its content of oestrogenic phytosterols help hasten a period, take the edge off PMS and exert a cooling action upon the body to dial back incidences of heat flushes and profuse sweating in menopause. Sage also has traditional usage to stop lactation post-weaning. Externally, cooled sage tea can be used as an antibacterial mouthwash and as gargle for sore throat and tonsillitis and as a rinse in scalp care. Sage is a slow starter from seed and can take a few weeks as a soft cutting too but once up and established it will do well. Best with propagator in the range of 15-20°C or placed under a homemade cloche from a mineral water bottle.

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum) supply a wonderful oniony flavour, snipped fresh, washed and folded into cream cheese or added at the last moment to a soup or sandwich. Chives share many medicinal properties with their cousins – garlic and onions – due to the presence of organosulfur compounds known to boost the human immune system and which have an intrinsic capacity to attack fungal, bacterial and viral infections. I use chive leaves in the garden to clean my secateurs and sheers. Chives are easily propagated from division of clumps or sown seed. Quick enough to germinate in a propagator at 18°C but good too sown direct into container.

Mint (Mentha spp) is invaluable for dressing new potatoes to making homemade ice-cream. There are many varieties with 25 distinct species yielding hundreds of crosses and cultivars. Peppermint and spearmint are the most often employed in culinary terms, but pineapple, orange and apple mint are a joy to grow too. All mint plants contain potently anti-spasmodic phytochemicals beneficial as airway dilators for asthma and bronchial complaints.

Sipping mint tea is known to relieves tension and migraine headaches by opening up constricted blood vessels in the brain. Topically the herb has been used to ease pain and agitation in muscles and is effective in alleviating sunburn, prickly heat, rashes and allergy reactions. Mint can be propagated by seed, by a soft wood cutting, layering of runners, a slip of root and by division of clumps. No excuse here. Do grow it in a pot on its own as it is invasive and will crowd out any mix planting quickly.

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DIY Antiviral liquid soap.

The regular use of hand sanitisers, soapy water and disinfectants may be keeping us safe from corona virus but our hands are paying a toll, one solution is to make or use more gentler soap, free from harsh chemicals and preservatives that can strip our natural oil barrier or otherwise irritate skin surface.

This is really easy one to make, its just a way to amend Castile soap to a more antiviral and aromatic use. You can get castile soap in any local health shop or online – it is a vegetable-based soap, free from animal fats, petroleum by-products and synthetic ingredients. So apart from being more vegan friendly and eco-friendly, it is absent of the traditional soap ingredients that can strip the barrier layer from skin and dry out your hand. It makes a soft lather but is sudsy enough to undermine bacterial and viruses on the surface of skin.

The idea is to simply infuse it with your own antiviral botanicals from the garden or add in some essential oils with antiviral properties – tee tree, lavender, thyme, peppermint, lemon balm etc – as many shakes as you like.

There are several brands of unadulterated castile and several brands that are ‘castile based’ but with extras added to scent or give shelf life. Best to start with the unadulterated and then what you add is in your favour. The essential oil will not spoil so you can make in any quantity and use as quickly or as slow as your needs dictate. If infusing lavender or other plant material from the garden make in smaller batches and remake as you need.

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Diy hand-replenishing lotion

With the frequency of handwashing amped up and the regular use of hand sanitisers and disinfectants becoming the new normal amid the covid pandemic, the irritation of those chemical agents and the stripping of our natural protective layers are leaving many hands the worse for wear. Here is a simple rose and witch-hazel hand lotion to soothe and replenish dry and agitated skin.

Witch-hazel (Hamamelis spp) has a centuries long use as an astringent and cosmeceutical to soothe irritated skin but it also makes an ideal extraction agent for the botanicals in other healing plants. We simply infuse the plant parts in the witch hazel solution for 2-3 days. In this instance, it is to cram some fresh or dried rose petals into the liquid, to infuse aroma, colour and skin toning properties. Roses are antioxidant powerhouses and help repair at a cellular level and as a surface anti-inflammatory agent. Once the liquid has become pink we can use it.

Using E45 or Silcocks base as a base emollient, we can stir at a ratio of two:one, the base and the infused witch-hazel to a runnier lotion consistency. Use as a hand tonic to alleviate chapped, irritated or water damaged hands.

Best made in small batches as without preservatives it will generally only store for 1 week.

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Diy hand sanitizer

So while spirit Alcohol (vodka, whisky etc) has long been utilized as a disinfectant and does exert strong antibacterial and milder antiviral activity, the strength/proof required to outright kill a virus is one found in the pharmacy/chemist as opposed to the off license.

The World Health Organisation recommends the use of alcohol over 70% and that’s in direction of either rubbing alcohol (isopropanol often between 90-99%) or surgical spirits (a over 70% mix of methanol and ethanol– both are more industrial or medical grade alcohols with a proven potency in killing viral pathogens.

to make –
simply mix 2-parts alc to 1-part glycerin – the glycerin slows the evaporation rate and helps disperse the virus-killing alc over the skin surface. It can feel at first a little slipier/stickier than over the counter sanitizer but it will absorb in well.

the tweak – you can swap out all or some of the glycerin with aloe vera gel – this will give a similar coating consistency but the skin tonic properties of the aloe will help the hand be less affected by the alc. A few drops of tee tree or other essential oil can aromatize the mix and be an added antiviral agent.

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the nature of things

“Mindfulness means paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally.” – Jon Kabat-Zinn (American professor emeritus of medicine and mindfulness advocate.)

Sure, mindfulness can be a relaxation technique – a way to attune to your inner peace – but it is also a means of immediate clarity – not just the development of focus and attainment of acuity but of paying attention to the nature of things and comprehending.

Mindfulness meditation is observation, the goal is to see clearly our true selves, we see it by dropping our beliefs and prejudices. We empty the mind of clutter to uncover what some Buddhist practitioners may call the original mind – a mind freed from attachment. We pay attention with our breath, with our body, with our full and true potential – with our presence.

We observe. We witness. We attend. We recognise. We are the awareness. We are the awe. We are not bound and we are not separate. That is the wisdom sought, that is the wisdom found, that is the original mind, that is the original soul. Discover that in the garden today. Let yourself notice the reality of life all around you. Let wisdom, joy, original self, unfold like a leaf or the pop of a flower.

I am reminded of a waka (traditional Japanese poem) attributed to Dōgen; ‘Mimi ni mite / me ni kiku naraba / utagawaji / onore nari keri / noki no tamamizu – Seeing with ears and hearing with eyes, there is no doubt that, the jewel-like raindrops dripping from the eaves are myself’.

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dandelion – the official weed with official healing potential

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinalis) derives its name from the French for the lions tooth – dent-de-lion – the large toothed leaves are noticeably serrated but they also pack a medicinal bite with some potent bitter glycosides, terpenoids and a good complement of vitamins and minerals including plenty of potassium and iron. There are several explanations in botanical circles for the nomenclature but I personally like the one that derives from the Greek ‘Taraxos – akos’ meaning ‘disorder remedy’, its ‘official’-ness (denoting herbal validation) backing that theory.

Dandelion leaf is utilized in salads and both fresh and dried to produce a herbal tea; 1-2 tsps of chopped herbage per cup of boiling water , steep for 3 – 7 minutes. The fresh foliage is slightly less bitter than the dried. The foliage and tea exert a strong diuretic action and so has a long history in treating UTIs, oedema, high blood pressure, glaucoma, to eliminate uric acid and as a detox. Unlike conventional diuretics which cause a loss of potassium, dandelion tea contains good levels of potassium.

A traditional spring tonic in the customs and pharmacopoeias of many European countries and further afield. Dandelion’s bitter glycosides including taraxacin and taraxacerin – can ease the symptoms and flare-ups of arthritis, acne, eczema, and gastritis. Dandelion has a history of use as a cleanser of the kidney, spleen, gall bladder and liver but note cautions with medications to remedy conditions of those parts.

Dandelion leaf tea increases bile production and stomach acids and is utilized to stimulate the appetite and assist efficient digestion. It is often utilized in the relief of bloating and stomach distention. Dandelion foliage is also a potent source of kynurenic acid which plays a role in the healthy functioning of the digestive system and gut flora and is remedial to diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
The root is also a great resource, notably roasted as a coffee substitute and detox beverage. Decoct in boiling water for 5-10mins; the ratio is 1/2 – 2 tsp per cup required depending on preferred strength. Higher dosages are more potent therapeutically but also stronger in bitterness. Can be sweetened to taste.

Dandelion in supporting stimulation of bile flow from the gall bladder to the duodenum helps to prompt the efficient digestion of fats and is considered applicably in detoxing from a former fatty diet – and as natural liver detox. As to the ‘bitterness’ – we have a ‘bitter taste’ receptor known as T2R38 which is implicated in how we respond to upper respiratory infection and chronic rhinosinusitis and the aroma of a bitter brew can fire up our anti-inflammatory radar if not actively engage our immune arsenal.

The roots also yield sesquiterpene lactones including eudesmanolide and germacranolide, which act as anti-inflammatories via potent inhibition of transcription factor NF-kappaB. Dandelion’s sesquiterpenes are also supportive to the activity of the pancreas and dandelion root contains two substances, inulin and levulin, that as soluble fibres can help reduce blood cholesterol and lower glucose levels and may see useful application in metabolic syndrome and diabetes treatments.

Caution: Avoid if allergic to ragweed. Dandelion may cancel the action of prescription antacids and increase the action of diuretics, diabetic medication and blood-thinning medications. As with all strong diuretics, anyone utilizing lithium or with kidney or gallbladder problems will require guidance/supervision of use.

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The solace of solitude.

“Solitude is an essential experience for the mind to organize its own processes and create an internal state of resonance. In such a state, the self is able to alter its constraints by directly reducing the input from interactions with others”
– Daniel J. Siegel (American clinical professor of psychiatry and mindfulness advocate.)

Gardening can be a solitary pastime, but is rare we feel alone there. The garden is a comforting space, full of your creativity and your nurturing care, there are times it wraps its arms back around you as you have done for it but being a gardener is also an endeavour developmental of a resilient nature – we work it alone, we spend our time there often in silence and abstract of wows. In times of stress and pain, a step out into the garden refires that long wired aspect – the solace button is pushed.

Many of the great mystics found solace in their silence and solitude – in the quiet alone there is personal renewal. In the quite alone there is a deepening of the grace of self-strength – of bringing to the moment your capacity for unfretful stillness and spiritual grounding – of being here/there no matter what. That’s not just a comfort that’s fortitude.

“Solitude is a silent storm that breaks down all our dead branches; yet it sends our living roots deeper into the living heart of the living earth”
– Khalil Gibran (Lebanese-American writer and poet.)

Gardening strengthens our capacity to be alone – that does not mean to become loners and removed from sociability, it means not being desperate to never be alone for fear of loneliness or what you might begin to feel or think if left to your own devices. It is self-confidence. It is self-awareness. It is replenishing.

There is no fear of missing out when you are busy pruning a bush or planting up a planter. No need to find out what’s going on beyond – it is all here, all you need, all that needs you – the union of self and true nature. In the solitude of the garden there is the escape from the noise of the constructed and confounding world. The quiet alone is music to many ears.

“When from our better selves we have too long
been parted by the hurrying world, and droop,
sick of its business, of its pleasures tired,
how gracious, how benign, is solitude”
― William Wordsworth (English poet)

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The way to be can be to do.

Lao Tzu, the Chinese Taoist philosopher (circa the 5th Century BC) is believed to have decreed that “The way to do is to be” – well the way to be can also be to do. I am a fan of mindful gardening as both a way to be and a way to do. It is both a cultivation of psychological resilience and spiritually gratifying.

It is no wonder that both contemplative Christian monks and Zen Buddhist monks took up gardening as part of their spiritual life. The grounding and commitment of maintaining an herb garden, and the discipline and patience of raking a gravel path. These dedications are devotion. These tasks are prayer.

This doing opens the self to being – whether that’s closer to God or closer to no-mind doesn’t really matter, it’s the being right there that is the transformative or enlightening power. Whatever your next gardening task, do it mindfully and deepen your awareness to its transformative power. You don’t need the robes or the haircut, but you can say om or amen.

In tune with our circadian rhythm. Just as plants react to daylight, soil moisture or ambient temperature so too we humans take similar cues from the natural world. In us, daylight triggers the activation of an alert neurotransmitter called serotonin which wakes us up to be active in daytime, while lowlight or night-time prompts the release of a sedating hormone – melatonin- to make us sleepy and go rest up. This is known as the circadian rhythm.

One of the stress factors of the modern world is that working or living under artificial light during daylight actually triggers melatonin and looking at phones and screens in the evening triggers serotonin – so our rhythms are off beat. No wonder we are tired all the time. The answer is to get outside.

Being and doing in the garden in the bright of day is you truly experiencing the day – the reality of it and the purposeful serotonin release of it. You are truly operating on daytime setting. If you have to be at work all day and only get to garden in the evening then being and doing in the garden in the ebbing light of the evening is you truly experiencing the transition of day towards night – and in the reality of it, this is also the purposeful prompts to melatonin levels and a shift in brain waves toward a better night’s sleep which will improve your daytime energy tomorrow.

It doesn’t matter when you tend the garden it tends you back.

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